TerryHowcott.com - Ravaged Cultures Spark a Cultural Revival


"Terms of Internment"

Concentration Camps - Made in America For The Japanese People

For most of us, there was little of that kind of dramatic discussion, no emphasis correlating with the outrage is placed in the schools on the matter of the Japanese Concentration camps during World War II.

What should have been passion and fervor in the delivery of this historical account was instead muted and monotone so as to allow the facts to fold in with other often boredom-producing materials provided in so many schools.

Your host would be a full fledged adult before coming to understand what happened at these concentration camps built, and the depth of pain and suffering.

This is (still another) mass kidnapping albeit on a much smaller scale - perpetrated against the Japanese people which included the forcible transporting of individuals, whole families from their homes and towns at which point they were held indefinitely by way of Executive Order 9066 signed by Franklin Roosevelt.

Propaganda pushed fear to its limits until a manufactured campaign was waged against the Japanese accusing that - not some, but all of them were spies for the Emperor of Japan.

They were essentially accused of being terrorists - which ought to sound real familiar.

We know that the basis of this prolonged evacuation was falsified given evidence shows that there were very believable reports abound that the Japanese people were innocent.

Some say as many as 200,000 Japanese were rounded up - some violently so, and instructed to take only what they "could carry" - and to sell what little they owned - furniture, appliances and the rest - on the way out.

The conclusion: a mere ten (10) people in the US were ever convicted of being spies during World World II, none of which were Japanese and all of whom were White.

In 1946 the last of these concentration camps were disbanded, but many Japanese folk returned to find everything they owned destroyed or in ruin.

Also, note that in Patriot Act fashion, the majority population claimed they were "defending themselves."

Banished and Beyond Tears

"Police banging on doors at all hours of the day or night, ordering frightened occupants to gather up only what they could carry."

Banished and Beyond Tears

Question #28 asked:

"Will you swear unqualified allegiance to the United States of America and faithfully defend the United States from any and all attack by foreign or domestic forces, and forswear any form of allegiance to the Japanese Emperor or any other foreign government, power, or organization?:

Japanese Internment (Concentration) Camps

Internment of Japanese in Concentration Camps

Legal Resources

Internment of Japanese

American Concentration Camps

"The Militant"

American Concentration Camps

Concentration camps on the home front

Concentration camps on the home front

Masumi Hayashi Exhibit on Japanese Internment Camps, Part 2

Prisoners Without Trial

Prisoners Without Trial

Legalized Racism: The Internment of the Japanese in America

"The internment . . . grew out of rampant anti-asian sentiment in the pre-war period."

Rampant Racism

Black Press Commentary on Japanese Internment

"All issues (114) of six Black weekly newspapers published between the bombing of Pearl Harbor and the end of April 1945 were examined with special attention paid to the editorial and opinion columns."

Black Press on Japanese Internment

Internment at Tanforan

The Relocation of San Diego's Nikkei Community

"If I were you, I wouldn't use your rights as a American citizen just now."

Before Bush There Was FDR

Children of The Camps

A Documentary

Children of The Camps

US Racism and Fear: Nothing New

Racism and Fear: Nothing New

Tule Lake

Tule Lake

A Family Gathering

Race War!: White Supremacy and the Japanese Attack on the British Empire

Race War

History of Tule Lake Internment Camp and The Pilgrimages

"Tule Lake was the crucible for Japanese resistance . . . where thousands of Japanese met America's betrayal with anger, defiance and rejection."

History of Tule Lake

Unfinished Business

Three Case of Japanese Resistors

Unfinished Business

Tule Lake: Terms of Internment

"Tule Lake, a historical novel written by Edward Miyakawa in 1980 returns to us like a mocking bird reminding us of the human rights travesty committed against both citizens (70%) and aliens of Japanese descent by federal, state and local authorities."

Terms of Internment

The Story of the Japanese American Draft Resisters in World War II

"They were to join the same army that had been guarding them for years, and that continued to aim weapons and searchlights at their parents and siblings."

Japanese Draft Resisters

When The Emperor Was Divine

Children of The Camps

Children of The Camps

The Japanese Internment and the Racial State of Exception

"The camp leave clearance policies then rearticulated the friend/enemy distinction in forwarding the state's attempt to assimilate the 'loyal' Japanese Americans into the wartime society as racial friends.

This emergency project attempted to restore the 'normal situation' by striving to unify the liberal-democratic state as a nation of homogeneous people."

Racial State of Exception

Government Propaganda - Similar to Today's in Many Ways

Moving Images

Moving Images

How Internment Destroyed a Japanese Community in America

Destroyed a Japanese Community

Violations of Civil Liberties an American Tradition

Violations of Civil Liberties an American Tradition

Raising the Red Flag: The Continued Relevance of
the Japanese Internment in the Post-Hamdi World

"Growing up, I
heard all about the cold, the dirt, the embarrassing communal showers,
the shame, and the guns."

The Continued Relevance

Religion and Resistance in America's Concentration Camps

"The orthodox view characterizes the
Japanese as defenseless, dependent, and abiding victims of circumstance. This
image was fostered by the paternalistic War Relocation Authority (WRA)
which administered the camps."

Religion and Resistance

Crystal City Internment

(Deeper, More Shameless Propaganda)

The Great Unknown and the Unknown Great

"He swiftly concluded that removal was being engineered by white agricultural interests anxious to grab the Issei farmers' land."

The Great Unknown

Japanese 'Relocation Center' Records

"This folder contains Administrative Instruction No. 100 outlining the policy of separating evacuees of doubtful loyalty from loyal evacuees, and designating Tule Lake as the relocation center for disloyal evacuees."

Japanese 'Relocation Center' Records

Robeson and the Japanese

Robeson and the Japanese

Japanese Experience in Mexico

(A sad video about the beginning of the obliteration of a culture, and if what happened to the Japanese is like a "ticking time bomb, waiting for some other "poor" group - then that would be a scandalous 'tradition.')

Black Attorney Hugh MacBeth and the Japanese Internment

Hugh MacBeth

Uprooted, Herded and Imprisoned

""It was such a devastating and traumatic kind of experience that most people of Japanese ancestry were reluctant to talk about it . . . We never even talked about it at home."

Uprooted, Herded and Imprisoned

Democratizing the Enemy: The Japanese American Internment

Democratizing the Enemy

Yuri Kochiyama at SFSU 40th Anniversary

"It was Yuri Kochiyama, when Malcolm X was assassinated - who was the woman with the scarf on her head in pictures seen around the world who was cradling him at the Audubon Ballroom."

The Brave Resister in the Camps

"I hope to dispel the myth that we were all "Quiet Americans" - that after being stripped of our constitutional rights . . . removed from our homes, businesses and jobs, then interned in concentration camps in god-forsaken areas of the deserts and prairies, we all went quietly and sheep-like, into segregated combat units to become cannon fodder to gain acceptance by the Great White Father..."

The Brave Resister in the Camps

Yuri Kochiyama Speaks

What America did to Black people was the worst . . . also I met so many Asians who are racist against Black people . . . "

"Why is it that oppressed people would rather become like their oppressor . . . "

Children of the Camps

"Until we can talk about the experience and make a connection with our grief and anger, we will each still be unconsciously trying to get out of our own personal camp. Our experience was unique, but it's an example of the broader experience of racism, how it permeates lives, and how we each attempt to survive it. It's about trauma and suffering, but it also is about our strength."

Children of the Camps

America's Concentration Camps - Resistance in the Camps

"It was May 1942 when my sister Ida brought home a poster she had torn down from a telephone pole on her way home from school in California's San Joaquin Valley.

We were stunned by its terse message . . . "

Resistance in the Camps

Sandra Oh Reads Yuri Kochiyama

People who immigrated to the US, and saw the conditions and treatment of Black people thought this could "never happen to them."

Descendants of Japanese Internees File Amicus Brief in Support of Muslim Immigrants

"The brief outlines the damage the internment did to their families and to the laws of equal protection in the U.S. and draws parallels between what was done to Japanese Americans during the war" and its relationship with the profiling of Muslims.

Descendants of Japanese File Amicus Brief

Superman, Super Racist: A Japanese Teen Confronts Comic Book Stereotypes

"Recently Giant Robot Magazine published pages from comics from the 1940s featuring racist images of brown skinned, buck-toothed, squinty-eyed Japanese Americans being slaughtered by superheroes."

Superman, Super Racist

1942 - 1945 Japanese "Relocation" and the 442 Regiment in Color

"A few days later, the government required that all internees answer loyalty questionnaires, which was used to register the Nisei (the first generation of Japanese origin to be born abroad) for the draft.

Question 27 of the loyalty questionnaire asked males eligible to register for the draft:

"Are you willing to serve in the armed forces of the United States on combat duty, wherever ordered?" while question 28 asked all internees:

"Will you swear unqualified allegiance to the United States of America and faithfully defend the United States from any or all attack by foreign or domestic forces, and forswear any form of allegiance or obedience to the Japanese emperor, or any other foreign government, power or organization?"

(The short way to put this is that Japanese men served in the military while their families had been kidnapped).

Shifting Ground of Race: Black and Japanese in the "Multiethnic" Los Angeles

"The key research on black organizations' positions on the internment has been done by Cheryl Greenberg, a professor of history at Trinity College, who found that the NAACP, the National Urban League and the National Council of Negro Women were mostly silent about the internment."

Shifting Ground of Race

Relatives of Interned Japanese Support Muslims

"If it was a grave injustice to subject �enemy aliens� to prolonged detention on account of race and national origin in World War II, the brief says, it was at least as unjust to single out the Turkmen plaintiffs, who were accused only of overstaying their visas."

Relatives of Interned Japanese Support Muslims

Citizenship Denied: An Integrated Unit on the Japanese American Internment.

Judy Woo and Jolynn Asato.

(No link)

Several Servicemen Have Attacked Contemporary Japanese Children at Okinawa

Tule Lake

"As proof of loyalty, all internees were expected to answer "yes" to both questions.

Those who answered "no" to either question were judged to be disloyal to America and ordered to the newly designated Tule Lake segregation center."

Tule Lake

The Japanese American Resisters

The Japanese American Resisters

Review of Song of Anger: Tales of Tule Lake

"True Tales from Tule Lake"

Song of Anger: Tales of Tule Lake

The Loyalty Questionnaire

"Will you swear unqualified allegiances to the United States of America and faithfully defend the United States from any or all attack by foreign or domestic forces, and forswear any form of allegiance or obedience to the Japanese emperor, or other foreign government, power or organization?”

"Japanese American men interned during World War II and who answered no to Question 27 and 28 on an Application for Leave Clearance were called No-No Boys."

The Loyalty Questionnaire

The Propaganda

Japanese Reparations, Democracy Now


Japanese Reparations, Democracy Now

Remembering Japanese Internment

"Many families have never recovered the economic gains they had made before the war. Much of what they had put into storage before heading to the camps was long gone."


Final Report; Japanese Evacuation from the West Coast 1942

"On February 14, 1942, I recommended to the War Department that the military security of the Pacific Coast required the establishment of broad civil control, anti-sabotage and counter-espionage measures, including the evacuation, therefrom of all persons of Japanese ancestry."

Japanese Evacuation from the West Coast 1942

Richard Aoki

Field Marshall For the Black Panther Party

Beloved Richard Aokia

Another Shade of Black Panther

(At itsabouttimebpp.com)

Another Shade of Black Panther

Camps For Citizens: Hellish vision

Camps For Citizens



Asian Reactions to Immigration Debate


"More than one millions "illegal" immigrants come from Asia."

Asian Reactions to Debate

Nominee Refuses to Comment on Japanese Internment

"Doesn't Know Enough"


2006 Act of Congress Preserves Internment Camps

"Suspicious restoration in name of "historical interest" will raise fears of link to Halliburton camps for dissidents."

Sudden Respect For Preservation

Japanese Internment at Tanforan

"I'm for catching every Japanese in America, Alaska, and Hawaii now and putting them in concentration camps.. . .Damn them! Let's get rid of them now!"

Congressman John Rankin, Congressional Record, Feb.19,1942.

"Langston Hughes wrote in 1944 about a white person telling a black church audience that 'these 'Japs' are really trying to wipe us white folks off the face of the earth' to which 'a dark, wrinkled old grandma in the amen corner' responded, 'It's about time!'"

Traditional Instrument, Unknown

Sakura, Themes and Variations

Cherry Blossoms

(Some of these variations are famous for "imitating the sound of 'Koto,' a traditional Japanese instrument:)

Japanese Folk Song

Thelonious Monk

"The Bootleg Series, 1963."

Japanese Percussionists

"Taiko means "drum" in Japanese (etymologically "great" or "wide drum").

Outside Japan, the word is often used to refer to any of the various Japanese drums and to the relatively recent art-form of ensemble taiko drumming.

Once Again


"Rhymester has been part of the Japanese hip hop scene since the early 90's and they are one of the more conscious rap groups that have been rapping about political issues and socio-economic issues affecting Japan.

They recently released an album called Manifesto in February and a single called ラストヴァース (Last Verse)" - Asian Rap Worldwide

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